Identità, famiglia, relazioni fra gruppi e svantaggio socio-educativo come fattori di insuccesso scolastico. Uno studio trasversale in un gruppo di studenti siciliani di scuola media inferiore

Monica Pellerone, Tiziana Ramaci, Sandra Miccichè, Nicola Malizia


Identity, family, relationships between groups and socio-educational disadvantage. As factors of school failure. A cross-sectional study in a group of middle school students of the Sicilian hinterland

The paper that we propose is a research on the adolescent phase and, in particular, on relationships that adolescents develop in school context. The present research was structured according to a multidimensional prospective, influenced by personal variables such as identity development; social variables such as the relationship that student creates with family and school, and even, the parent-teacher relationship; and, economic-cultural variables such as the characteristics of socio-educational environment. In synthesis results indicate that students with low identity profile have difficulty in school adaptation and acceptance of one’s body; students with conflictual family relationships manifest reduced emotional maturity and family adaptation. Furthermore, the negative perception that parents have of their family roles and a low level of student’s emotional regulation are predictive of school discomfort. Through this research we wanted to explore the value and influence of the socio-educational and emotional context as an essential step in the knowledge about school maladjustment.


Identity, family, peer relationships, socio-educational disadvantage, school discomfort

Full Text


Riferimenti bibliografici

Ackard, D. M., Neumark-Sztainer D., Story M., & Perry, C. (2006). Parent-child connectedness and behavioral and emotional health among adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30 (1), 59-66.

Alderman H., Behrman J. R., Lavy V., & Menon R. (2001). Child Health and School Enrolment: A Longitudinal Analysis. Journal of Human Resources, 36(1), 185–205.

Allen, S., & Daly, K. (2007). The Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence. [Online] Available: (May, 2007).

Amenta, G. (2004). Gestire il disagio a scuola [Manage the discomfort at school]. Brescia: La Scuola. Italian.

Astone, N. M., & McLanahan, S. S. (1991). Family structure, parental practices and high school completion. American Sociological Review, 56, 309-320. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00533.x

Astone, N. M. & McLanahan, S. S. (1994). Family structure, residential mobility, and school dropout: A research note. Demography, 31, 575-584.

Berndt, T. J. (1989). Obtaining support from friends during childhood and adolescence. In D. Belle (Ed.), Children’s social networks and social support (pp. 308-330). New York: Wiley

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2004). Changing relationships, changing youth: Interpersonal contexts of adolescent development. Journal of early adolescence, 24(1), 55-62. doi: 10.1177/0272431603260882.

Collins, W. A., Haydon, K. C. & Hesemeyer, P. (2007). Relating relationships: Development expansion, and interrelations in relationship networks. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(6), 581-584.

Craparo, G., Gori A., Mazzola, E., Petruccelli, I., Pellerone, M., Rotondo, G. (2014). Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and alexithymia in an Italian sample of flood victims. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 10, 2281-2284. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S74317.

Crosnoe, R., Glen, H. & Elder, J. R. (2004). Family dynamics, supportive relationships, and educational resilience during adolescence. Journal of family issues, 25(5), 571-602. doi:10.1177/0192513X03258307.

Deepshikha, S., & Bhanot, S. (2011). Role of family environment on socio-emotional adjustment of adolescent girls in rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Psychology, 2 (1), 53-56.

Desforges, C., & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievements and adjustment: A literature review. Research Report RR433. [Online] Available: (June, 2003).

Dishion, T. J., French, D. C., & Patterson, G. R. (1995). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopatology, (Vol. 2). Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 421-471). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M. & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental psychology, 27(1), 172-180. doi:

Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. (1998). Prosocial development. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3). Social, emotional, and personality development (pp.701-778). New York: Wiley.

Fazio, I. (2004). The family, honor and gender in Sicily: models and new research. Modern Italy, 9(2), 263-280. Retrieved from

Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59 (2), 117-142. doi: 10.3102/00346543059002117.

Fosco, G. M, Stormshak E., Dishion T. J, & Winter, C. (2012). Family relationships and parental monitoring during middle school as predictors of early adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Adolescent Psychology, 41(2), 202–213. doi: 10.108/15374416.2012.651989.

Hoeve, M., Dubas, J. S., Eichelsheim, V. I., van der Laan, P. H., Smeenk, W., & Gerris, J. R. M. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency: a meta-analysis. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 37(6), 749-75. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9310-8.

Gadsden, V., & Ray, A. (2003). Fathers’ role in children’s academic achievement and early literacy. ERIC Digest. [Online] Available:

Goldschmidt, P., & Wang, J. (1999). When can schools affect dropout behavior? A longitudinal multilevel analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 36, 715-738.

Gray, K. L. (2011). Effects of parent-child attachment on social adjustment and friendship in young adulthood. [Online] Available: http://digitalcommons.calpoly. edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=psycdsp (June, 2011).

Hafen, C. A., & Laursen, B. (2009). More problem and less support. Early adolescent adjustment forecast changes in perceived support from parents. Journal of family psychology, 23(2), 193-202. doi: 10.1037/a0015077

Hollingshead, A.B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. [Online] Available:

Howard, K. S., Lefever, J. E., Borkowski, J. G., & Whitman, T. L. (2006). Fathers’ influence in the lives of children with adolescent mothers. Journal of Family Psychology, 20 (3), 468-476.

Iacolino, C., Pellerone, M., Ferraro, A.M., & Campanaro, S.C. (In press). Il disimpegno morale, l'orientamento valoriale e la percezione del fenomeno mafioso: uno studio condotto su un gruppo di adolescenti siciliani. Narrare i gruppi. Etnografia dell’interazione quotidiana. Prospettive cliniche e sociali.

Ladd, G.W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1996), Friendship quality as a predictor of young childen’s early school adjustment. Child development, 67(3), 1103-1118.

Lee, S. Y. (2012). The mediating effect of self-esteem and learning attitude on the relationship between middle school students’ perceived parenting style and school life adjustment. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 4(1), 389-398.

Licari, G. (2008). Vivere con gli altri nell’epoca post-moderna. Per un modello di convivenza interculturale. Narrare i gruppi. Etnografia dell’interazione quotidiana. Prospettive cliniche e sociali,3(3), 1-12.

Licari, G., & Giorgi, G. (2015). Conoscere il mondo per conoscere la propria cultura Narrare i gruppi. Etnografia dell’interazione quotidiana. Prospettive cliniche e sociali, 1(1), 10-16.

Lipschitz-Elhawi, R., & Itzhaky, H. (2005). Social support, mastery, self-esteem and individual adjustment among at-risk youth. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34 (5), 329-346.

Magnano, P., Ramaci, T., & Platania, S. (2014a). Self-efficacy in learning and scholastic success: implications for vocational guidance. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences Journal, 116, 232-236. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.374

Magnano, P., Santisi, G., & Ramaci, T. (2014b). Does the metacognitive attitude predict work motivation in Italian teachers? Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2014, 2, 95-105. doi 10.436/jss.2014.212014

McNeal, R. B. (1999). Parental involvement as social capital: Differential effectiveness on science achievement, truancy, and dropping out. Social Forces, 78 (1), 117-144. doi: 10.1093/sf/78.1.117

Milan, S., & Pinderhughes, E. E. (2006). Family Instability and Child Maladjustment Trajectories During Elementary School. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 34(1), 43-56. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-9007-6.

Musetti, A., Pasini, C., Cattivelli, R. (2015). La quotidianità dell’incontro in classe: insegnamento e alterità. Narrare i gruppi Etnografia dell’interazione quotidiana Prospettive cliniche e sociali, 10(1), 62-70.

Newmann, F. M., Wehlage, G. G., & Lamborn, S. D. (1992). The significance and sources of student engagement. In F. M. Newmann (Ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp.11-39). New York: Teachers College Press.

Pellerone M. (2013a). Identity status, coping strategy and decision making process among Italian university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 1399-1408. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.156

Pellerone, M. (2013b). Time perception in children with developmental dyscalculia, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 103, 1220-1227. doi 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.450.

Pellerone, M. (2015). La fenomenologia della dispersione scolastica [The phenomenology of school dropout]. In M. Pellerone (Ed.), Rischio di dispersione scolastica e disagio socio-educativo. Strategie e strumenti di intervento in classe [School drop-out risk and socio-educational discomfort. Strategies and intervention tools in the classroom]. (pp. 17-28). Milano: Franco Angeli. Italian.

Pellerone, M., & Bellomo, M. (2015). Racial Identity and Disability: The Perception of the “Other” in a Group of Italian School Teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 161-166. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.075

Pellerone, M., Passanisi, A., & Bellomo, M. (2015) Identity development, intelligence structure and interests: Adolescents and the decision-making process. Journal of Psychology Research and Behavior Management. Dove Medical Press, 8, 239-249. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S88631.

Pellerone M., Tolini, G., & Polopoli, C. (2016). Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms and alcohol use. A cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Dove Medical Press.

Pong, S. L. & Ju, D. B. (2000). The effects of change in family structure and income on dropping out of middle and high school. Journal of Family Issues, 21 (2), 147. doi: 10.1177/019251300021002001

Rubin, K.W., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships and groups. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed, Vol. 3, pp.619-700). New York: Wiley.

Rumberger, R. W., & Larson, K. A. (1998). Student mobility and the increased risk of high school dropout. American Journal of Education, 107, 1-35.

Rumberger, R. W. (1995). Dropping out of middle school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal. [Online] Available: http://www.

Rumberger, R. W., & Palardy G. (2005). Test scores, dropout rates, and transfer rates as alternative Indicators of high school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 42 (1), 3-42. doi: 10.3102/00028312042001003

Salvini, A. (2006). Note sul concetto psicologico d’identità. Narrare i gruppi. Prospettive cliniche e sociali, 1(1), 5-15.

Santisi, G., Magnano, P., Hichy, Z., & Ramaci, T. (2014). Metacognitive strategies and work motivation in teachers: an empirical study. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 116, 1227-1331. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.373

Wehlage, G. G., Rutter, R. A., Smith, G. A., Lesko, N., & Fernandez, R. R. (1989). Reducing the Risk: Schools as Communities of Support. New York: Falmer Press.


  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Utilizziamo i cookie per essere sicuri che tu possa avere la migliore esperienza sul nostro sito. Se continui ad utilizzare questo sito noi assumiamo che tu sia d'accordo con i cookie da noi utilizzati. Per maggiori informazioni clicca qui: Privacy policy e cookie


Rivista scientifica ISSN: 2281-8960 - registrata presso il Tribunale di Cremona: registro stampa n° 323/2013