Commensalità e capacitazione individuale: un’analisi etnografica del progetto ‘Tavole Allegre’

Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco, Dauro Mattia Zocchi

Abstract


L’articolo approfondisce il ruolo della commensalità e della narrazione gastronomica nella lotta alla solitudine urbana e nel processo di capacitazione socioculturale di soggetti fragili, esplorando etnograficamente i dati emersi dal progetto ‘Tavole Allegre’ promosso da Slow Food e dalla Compagnia di San Paolo, a Torino nel 2019. Quest’esperienza conferma come sia possibile costruire un processo di inclusione socioculturale attraverso la condivisione del pranzo e la discussione attorno al cibo tra i commensali valorizzando il contributo dato da esperti e volontari e offrendo un contributo nuovo al più ampio fenomeno del food sharing in contesti urbani.

 

Commensality and individual ability: an ethnographic analysis of the 'Cheerful Tables' project

The article explores the role of commensality and food narrations in relieving urban solitude and capacitating fragile individuals. In so doing, it ethnographically analyses the results of the project ‘Tavole Allegre’ promoted by Slow Food and Compagnia di San Paolo, in Turin in 2019. The research confirms that sharing and discussing about food are viable strategies to foster social inclusion and offers a new contribution to the debate about urban food sharing.


Keyword


Cultural Alimentare, Solitudine, Commensalità, Capacitazione, Fragilità Socioculturale.

Full Text

PDF articolo

Riferimenti bibliografici


Alkon, A.H., Block, D., Moore, K., Gillis, C., Di Nuccio, N., & Chavez, N. (2013). Foodways of the Urban Poor. Geoforum, 48(54), 126-135.

Allahyari, R. (2000). Visions of Charity: Volunteer Workers and Moral Community. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Amin, A., 2010. Cities and the Ethic of Care for the Stranger. Jt. Joseph Rowntree Found. York Annu. Lect. York Joseph Rowntree Found. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/cities-and-ethic-care-stranger.

Appadurai, A. (1981). Gastro-politics in Hindu South Asia. American Ethnologist, 8(3), 494–511.

Ardigò A. (1982). Crisi di governabilità e mondi vitali, Bologna: Cappelli.

Bell, D., and Valentine, G. (1997). Consuming Geographies: We Are Where We Eat. Lon-dra: Routledge.

Bichi R. (2000). La tecnica di intervista nelle storie di vita: il rimando neutro, forme e modalità di riconoscimento tra aree di significato. Studi di Sociologia, 38(2), 175-188.

Blake, C. E., Bisogni, C. A., Sobal, J., Jastran, M., & Devine, C. M. (2008). How Adults Construct Evening Meals. Scripts for Food Choice. Appetite, 51(3), 654-662.

Bloch, M. (1999). Commensality and Poisoning. Social Research, 66(1), 133-149.

Blum-Kulka, S. (1997). Dinner talk: Cultural Patterns of Sociability and Socialization in Family Discourse. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bourdieu P. (1986). The Forms of Capital, in Handbook of Theory and Research in Sociology of Education, (a cura di) Richardson J. New York: Greenwood, 1986.

Brannen, J., O’Connell, R., & Mooney, A. (2013). Families, meals and synchronicity: eating together in British dual earner families. Community, Work & Family, 16(4), 417–434.

Charles, N. & Kerr, M. (1988). Women, Food and Families, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Clark A., & Chalmers, D. J. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, 58(1), 7–19.

Cloke, P., May, J., & Williams, A. (2016). The Geographies of Food Banks in the Meantime. Progress in Human Geography, 41(6), 703–726.

Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Coleman, L. (2009). Being Alone Together: From Solidarity to Solitude in Urban Anthropology. Anthropological Quarterly, 82(3), 755-777.

Coleman, L. (2015). A View Form Anthropology: Anomie and Urban Solitude. In The Handbook of Solitude, (a cura di) Coplan, R. J., Bowker, J. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.

Cooreman-Guittin, T. (2019). Growing in Humanity: On Vulnerability, Capacitation, and Encounter in Religious Education: A Christian Practical Theological Ap-proach. Religious Education, 114(2), 143-154.

Counihan, C.M. (2004). Around the Tuscan Table. Food, Family and Gender in Twentieth Century. New York; Londra: Routledge.

Danesi, G. (2012). Pleasures and Stress of Eating Alone and Eating Together among French and German Young Adults. Menu: Journal of Food and Hospitality Research, 1, 77-91.

Danesi, G. (2018). A Cross-cultural Approach to Eating Together: Practices of Commensality among French, German and Spanish Young Adults. Social Science Information, 57(1), 99–120.

DeVault, M. (1994). Feeding the Family. The Social Organisation of Caring and Gendered Work. Chicago; Londra: University of Chicago Press.

Dietler, M. (2001). Theorizing the Feast: Rituals of Consumption, Commensal Poli-tics, and Power in African Contexts, In Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power, (a cura di) Dietler, M., Hayden, B. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.

Douglas, M., & Nicod, N. (1974). Taking the Biscuit. The Structure of British Meals. New Society, 33, 744–747.

Durkheim, E. (1912). Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris: Alcan.

Dyen, M., & Sirieix, L. (2016). How Does a Local Initiative Contribute to Social In-clusion and Promote Sustainable Food Practices? Focus on the Example of Social Cooking Workshops. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 40(6), 685–694.

Ehrkamp, P., & Nagel, C. (2014). “Under the Radar”: Undocumented Immigrants, Christian Faith Communities, and the Precarious Spaces of Welcome in the U.S. South. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(2), 319–328.

Fassino, G., & Porporato, D. (a cura di) (2016). Fame di lavoro. Storie di gastronomia ope-raia. Torino: Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte.

Fischler, C. (1979). Gastro-nomie et gastro-anomie. Communications, 31(1), 189–210.

Fischler, C. (1980). Food Habits, Social Change and the Nature/Culture Dilemma. Information (International Social Science Council), 19(6), 937–953.

Fischler, C. (1988). Food, Self and Identity. Social Science Information, 27(2), 275–293.

Fischler, C. (1990). L'(h)omnivore. Paris: Odile Jacob.

Flandrin, J.-L., & Montanari, M. (1999). Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present. New York: Columbia University Press.

Fontefrancesco, M. F. (2019). Food Donation and Food Drive: Strategies to Achieve Zero Hunger. In: Zero Hunger. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, (a cura di) Leal Filho W., Azul A., Brandli L., Özuyar P., Wall T. Cham: Springer, 2019.

Giacoman, C. (2016). The Dimensions and Role of Commensality: A Theoretical Model Drawn from the Significance of Communal Eating among Adults in Santiago, Chile. Appetite, 107, 460–470.

Giacoman, C. (2019). Eating Time in Santiago, Chile: A Trade-off between Norms and Biological and Social Requirements. Time & Society, 28(4), 1596–1618.

Gilroy, P. (2004). Postcolonial Melancholia. New York: Columbia University Press.

Goffman, E. (1956). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Edimburgo: University of Edinburgh Social Sciences Research Centre.

Goody, J. (1982). Cooking, Cuisine, and Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grignon, C. (2001). Commensality and Social Morphology: An Essay of Typology. In Food, Drink and Identity. Cooking, Eating and Drinking in Europe since the Middle Ages, (a cura di), Scholliers, P. New York, Oxford: Berg, 2001.

Hayden, B., & Villeneuve, S. (2011). A Century of Feasting Studies. Annuual Review of Anthropology, 40(1), 433–449.

Heil, T. (2014). Are Neighbours Alike? Practices of Conviviality in Catalonia and Casamance. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 17(4), 452–470.

Herzfeld, M. (2004). The Body Impolitic: Artisans and Artifice in the Global Hierarchy of Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Higgs, S. (2015). Social Norms and their Influence on Eating Behaviours. Appetite, 86, 38-44.

Hinchliffe, S., & Whatmore, S. (2006). Living Cities: Towards a Politics of Convivial-ity. Science as Culture, 15(2), 123–138.

Holm L, Lauridsen D, Lund TB, Gronow J, et al. (2016). Changes in the Social Context and Conduct of Eating in Four Nordic Countries between 1997 and 2012. Appetite, 103, 358–368.

Hunt, G., Fazio, A., MacKenzie, K., & Moloney, M. (2011). Food in the Family. Bringing Young People back in. Appetite, 56(2), 394-402.

Ingold, T. (2008). Anthropology Is Not Ethnography. Proceedings of the British Academy, 154(11), 69-92.

Jones, M. (2007). Feast: Why Humans Share Food. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Julier, A. P. (2013). Eating Together: Food, Friendship and Inequality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Kerner, S., Chou, C., & Warmind, M. (a cura di) (2015). Commensality: From Everyday Food to Feast. London; Oxford: Blomsbury.

Kohn, E. (2015). Anthropology of Ontologies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 44, 311-327.

Kruithof, K., Suurmond, J., & Harting, J. (2018). Eating Together as a Social Network Intervention for People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: a Theory-based Evaluation. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 13(1), 1516089.

Mäkelä, J., Kjærnes, U., Pipping Ekström, M., L’orange Fürst, E., Gronow, J., & Holm, L. (1999). Nordic Meals: Methodological Notes on a Comparative Survey. Appetite, 32(1), 73–79.

Marovelli, B. (2019). Cooking and Eating Together in London: Food Sharing Initia-tives as Collective Spaces of Encounter. Geoforum, 99, 190–201.

Mars, L. (1997). Food and Disharmony: Commensality among Jews. Food and Food-ways, 7(3), 189–202.

Mauss, M. (1954). The Gift. London: Cohen and West.

Mintz, S., & Du Bois, C. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(1), 99–119.

Montanari, M. (1992). Convivio oggi. Storia e cultura dei piaceri della tavola nell’età contempora-nea. Rome; Bari: Laterza.

Müller, K. E. (2005). Piccola etnologia del mangiare e del bere. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Murcott, A. (1986). You Are What You Eat – Anthropological Factors Influencing Food Choice. In The Food Consumer (a cura di), Ritson, C., Gofton, L.R., McKenzie J., Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

Murcott, A. (2012). Lamenting the ‘Decline of the Family Meal’ as a Moral Panic? Methodological Reflections. Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques, 43(1), 97–118.

Mutti A. (1998). Capitale sociale e sviluppo, Bologna: Il Mulino.

Ochs, E., & Shohet, M. (2006). The Cultural Structuring of Mealtime Socialization. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2006(111), 35–49.

Nussbaum, M. & Sen, A. (a cura di) (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Oxford Uni-versity Press.

Petrini C. (2005). Buono, Pulito e Giusto: Principî di nuova gastronomia. Torino: Einaudi.

Pilotti, F. J. (1979). Ideological Capacitation of the Peasantry in the Context of Revo-lutionary Agrarian Reform. In Anthropology and Social Change in Rural Areas, (a cura di), Berdichewsky, B, L’Aia: The Gruyter, 1979.

Poppendieck, J. (2014). Food Assistance, Hunger and the End of Welfare in the USA. In First World Hunger Revisited: Food Charity or the Right to Food?, (a cura di), Riches, G., Silvasti, T., Londra: Palgrave- Macmillan, 2014.

Riches, G. (1986). Foodbanks and the Welfare Crisis. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Riches, G. (2002). Food Banks and Food Security: Welfare Reform, Human Rights and Social Policy – Lessons From Canada. Social Policy and Administration, 36(6), 648–663.

Scagliusi, F. B., da Rocha Pereira, P., Unsain, R. F., & de Morais Sato, P. (2016). Eat-ing at the Table, on the Couch and in Bed: An Exploration of Different Locus of Commensality in the Discourses of Brazilian Working Mothers. Appetite, 103, 80–86.

Scholliers, P., (2001). Meals, Food Narratives, and Sentiments of Belonging in Past and Present, in Food, Drink and Identity : Cooking, Eating and Drinking in Europe Since the Middle Ages, (a cura di) Scholliers, P.,Oxford: Berg, 2001.

Sen, A. (2009). The Idea of Justice. London: Allen Lane.

Simmel, G. (1961). The Sociology of Sociability. In Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory, (a cura di), Parsons, T., Shils, E., Naegele, K. D., Pitts, J. R., New York: Free Press, 1961.

Simmel. G. (1997). The Sociology of the Meal? In D., Frisby, M., Featherstone (Eds) Simmel on Culture: Selected Writings (pp. 130–136). London: Sage.

Sobal, J. (2000). Sociability and Meals: Facilitation, Commensality, and Interaction. In Dimensions of the Meal: The Science, Culture, Business, and Art of Eating, (a cura di), Meiselman, H. L, Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, 2000.

Sobal, J. (2006). Individualization of Eating. Appetite, 47(3), 400.

Sobal, J., & Nelson, M. K. (2003). Commensal Eating Patterns: A Community Study. Appetite, 41(2), 181-190.

Sobal, J., & Wansink, B. (2007). Kitchenscapes, Tablescapes, Platescapes, and Food Scapes: Influences of Microscale Built Environments on Food Intake. Environmental and Behavior, 39(1), 124-142.

Sobal, J., Bove, C., & Rauschenbach, B. (2002). Commensal Careers and Entry into Marriage: Establishing Commensal Units and Managing Commensal Circles. Sociological Review, 50(3), 376–395.

Southerton, D, Díaz-Méndez, C., & Warde, A. (2011). Behavioural Change and the Temporal Ordering of Eating Practices: A UK–Spain Comparison. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture & Food, 19(1), 19–36.

Stewart, K. (2007). Ordinary Afffects. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Stewart, K. (2008). Weak Theory in an Unfinished World. Journal of Folklore Research, 45(1), 71-82

Stewart, K. (2010). Afterword: Worlding Refrains. In The Affect Theory Reader, (a cura di), Gregg, M., Seigworth G.J., Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

Symons, M. (1994). Simmel’s Gastronomic Sociology: An Overlooked Essay. Food and Foodways, 5(4), 333–351.

Tarasuk, V., Dachner, N., & Loopstra, R. (2014). Food Banks, Welfare and Food Insecurity in Canada. British Food Journal, 116(9), 1405–1417.

Tuomainen, H. (2014). Eating Alone or Together? Commensality among Ghanaians in London. Anthropology of Food, S10.

Walker, I. (2012). Ntsambu, the Foul Smell of Home: Food, Commensality and Identity in the Comoros and the Diaspora. Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of Human Nourishment, 20(3-4), 187-210.

Wallendorf, M., & Arnould, E.J. (1991). We Gather Together: Consumption Rituals of Thanksgiving Day. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(1), 13-31.

Wessendorf, S. (2014). Commonplace Diversity: Social Relations in a Super-diverse Context. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wise, A., & Noble, G. (2016). Convivialities: An Orientation. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(5), 423–431.

Wise, A., & Velayutham, S. (2014). Conviviality in Everyday Multiculturalism: Some Brief Comparisons between Singapore and Sydney. European journal of cultural studies, 17 (4), 406–430.

Yates, L., & Warde, A. (2017). Eating Together and Eating Alone: Meal Arrangements in British Households. British Journal of Sociology., 68 (1), 97–118.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Utilizziamo i cookie per essere sicuri che tu possa avere la migliore esperienza sul nostro sito. Se continui ad utilizzare questo sito noi assumiamo che tu sia d'accordo con i cookie da noi utilizzati. Per maggiori informazioni clicca qui: Privacy policy e cookie

......................................................................................................................................................................................

Rivista scientifica ISSN: 2281-8960 - registrata presso il Tribunale di Cremona: registro stampa n° 323/2013