Challenging the challenge: The Ethics of Early Intervention

Rodolfo Maggio

Abstract


Early intervention (EI) programs face severe and often condemnatory critique. Some common criticisms arising within the social science literature concern the burden of moral blame that EI programs supposedly place upon parents; the use of inaccurate or misleading scientific ‘evidence’; and the absorption of children from minority or peripheral backgrounds into the dominant culture. These criticisms might be unwarranted and must be questioned. In this paper, I draw from ethnographic research conducted with ‘Preparing For Life’ (PFL), an EI program operating in Darndale, Ireland. Research with this population provides ways of responding to criticisms frequently levelled at EI. In defending this argument, I propose approaching the debate about EI from at ethical rather than political perspective.


Keyword


Ethnography, Early Intervention, Ethics, Governmentality, Politics of evidence

Riferimenti bibliografici


Akrivoulis, D. E. (2017). Beyond the hermeneutics of suspicion in the critique of humanitarian intervention. Review of International Studies, 43(2), 240-259.

Anderson, M. L. (2008). Multiple inference and gender differences in the effects of early intervention: A reevaluation of the Abecedarian, Perry Preschool, and Early Training Projects. Journal of the American statistical Association, 103(484), 1481-1495.

Aronen, E. T., & Kurkela, S. A. (1996). Long-term effects of an early home-based intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(12), 1665-1672.

Blauw-Hospers, C. H., & Hadders-Algra, M. (2005). A systematic review of the effects of early intervention on motor development. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 47(6), 421-432.

Brighouse, H., & Swift, A. (2014). Family values: The ethics of parent-child relationships. Princeton University Press.

Bruer, J. T. (1999). The myth of the first three years: A new understanding of early brain develop-ment and lifelong learning. Simon and Schuster.

Cameron, D. (2016). Prime Minister’s speech on life chances. Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/prime-ministers-speech-on-life-chances.

EIF. (2018). Evaluating early intervention programmes: six common pitfalls, and how to avoid them. Retrieved April 16, 2018 from http://www.eif.org.uk/ publica-tion/evaluating-early-intervention-programmes-six-common-pitfalls-and-how-to-avoid-them/

Fass, P. S., & Mason, M. A. (Eds.). (2000). Childhood in America. NYU Press.

Feldman, M. A., Sparks, B., & Case, L. (1993). Effectiveness of home-based early intervention on the language development of children of mothers with mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14(5), 387-408.

Foucault, M. (2007). Security, territory, population: lectures at the Collège de France, 1977-78. London: Springer.

Garcia, A. R., DeNard, C., Ohene, S., Morones, S. M., &

Connaughton, C. (2018). “I am more than my past”: Parents’ attitudes and perceptions of the Positive Parenting Program in Child Welfare. Children and Youth Services Review, 88, 286-297.

Gillies V., Edwards R., & Horsley N. (2017). Challenging the Politics of Early Intervention: Who’s ‘saving’ children and why. Bristol: Policy Press.

Goodwin, T. (2012). Why we should reject ‘nudge’. Politics, 32(2), 85-92.

Grose, J. (2015). No need for moms to stay at home. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-grose-parenting-20150403-story.html

Hays, S. (1996). The cultural contradictions of motherhood. New Haven/London: Yale Uni-versity Press.

Jenks, C. (2005). Childhood. London: Routledge.

Kagan, J. (2009). Three seductive ideas. Harvard University Press.

Kampmann, J. (2004). Societalization of childhood: New opportunities? New de-mands? In H. Brembeck, B. Johansson and J. Kampmann (Eds), Beyond the Competent Child: Exploring Contemporary Childhoods in the Nordic Welfare Societies (127–152). Roskilde: Roskilde University Press.

Keddie, A. (2016). Children of the market: performativity, neoliberal responsibilisation and the construction of student identities. Oxford Review of Education, 42(1), 108-122.

Kendrick, D., Elkan, R., Hewitt, M., Dewey, M., Blair, M., Robinson, J., Brummell, K. (2000). Does home visiting improve parenting and the quality of the home environment? A systematic review and meta analysis. Archives of disease in childhood, 82(6), 443-451.

Macleod, C., & Miller, D. E. (Eds.). (2016). A Companion to Mill. Oxford: Wiley Black-well.

Macvarish J. (2016). Neuroparenting: The Expert Invasion of Family Life. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Moss, Peter. 2016. “Where am I? Position and Perspective in Researching Early Childhood Education.” The SAGE Handbook of Early Childhood Research, 89-102.

Nicholas, B., & Broadstock, M. (1999). Effectiveness of early interventions for pre-venting mental illness in young people. New Zealand: New Zealand Health Technology Assessment Clearing House. NZHTA-Report, August, 2(3): 31-41.

Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78(1), 65-78.

Peacock, S., Konrad, S., Watson, E., Nickel, D., & Muhajarine, N. (2013). Effective-ness of home visiting programs on child outcomes: a systematic review. BMC public health, 13(1), 17.

Roberts, I., Kramer, M. S., & Suissa, S. (1996). Does home visiting prevent childhood injury? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Bmj, 312(7022), 29-33.

Rose, N., & Abi-Rached, J. M. (2013). Neuro: The new brain sciences and the management of the mind. Princeton University Press.

Smith, K. (2012). Producing governable subjects: Images of childhood old and new. Childhood, 19(1), 24-37.

Sonu, D., & Benson, J. (2016). The quasi-human child: How normative conceptions of childhood enabled neoliberal school reform in the United States. Curriculum Inquiry, 46(3), 230-247.

Soss, J., Fording, R. C., & Schram, S. (2011). Disciplining the poor: Neoliberal paternalism and the persistent power of race. University of Chicago Press.

Stevens, M. (2014). The cost‐effectiveness of UK parenting programmes for preventing children’s behaviour problems–a review of the evidence. Child & Family Social Work, 19(1), 109-118.

Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (1999). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT Yales University Press.

Van Sluijs, E. M., McMinn, A. M., & Griffin, S. J. (2007). Effectiveness of interven-tions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. Bmj, 335(7622), 703.

Waddel, S. (2018). The evidence base on social and emotional learning is complex and far from com-prehensive, but teachers need our ‘best bets’ now. Retrieved April 17, 2018, from http://www.eif.org.uk/social-and-emotional-learning-best-bets/.

Weiner, L.Y. (2000). Reconstructing Motherhood: The La Leche League in Postwar America. In P. S. Fass & M.A. Mason, (Eds.), Childhood in America (pp.23-28). New York: New York University Press.

White, M., & Hunt, A. (2000). Citizenship: Care of the self, character and persona-lity. Citizenship studies, 4(2), 93-116.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Utilizziamo i cookie per essere sicuri che tu possa avere la migliore esperienza sul nostro sito. Se continui ad utilizzare questo sito noi assumiamo che tu sia d'accordo con i cookie da noi utilizzati. Per maggiori informazioni clicca qui: Privacy policy e cookie

......................................................................................................................................................................................

Rivista scientifica ISSN: 2281-8960 - registrata presso il Tribunale di Cremona: registro stampa n° 323/2013